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LessMilk is one of them. I get in touch with interesting people, learn new things about game design, discover new opportunities, etc.

Creating the Canvas

How did you promote your first game? Which game was the one that gave you the highest exposure? Promoting a game is really hard in such a crowded market, I discovered that the hard way. At first I tried to show my games to people interested in gaming. Makes sense, right?

How to Make a HTML5 Game – GameDev Academy

So I posted about my project on game related forums and on indie game blogs. It completely failed. So I changed my strategy, and I tried to approach Javascript communities and blogs.

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This time it worked, people were interested in my project! I posted it on Reddit, and it quickly got more than up-votes. That was a awesome day for me. Is there anything you could share that might help game developers understand their communities and market better? Is there anything that stands out when you look back at your own initial success? There are so many great games out there, even some made in less than 24 hours for game jams. Looking at someone making one new game per week, and seeing his progress as a game designer is unique.

People got curious, and started talking about my project. So my advice to be noticed is to do something different. My go-to source of information is Hacker News. A lot of the things I know were learned over the last few years on HN.

How come? Do you have plans to share the code in the future?

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For example, if we wanted to add an enemy to our scene, we would do:. A "sprite" is an image that is rendered to represent an entity. Sprites are more complex because we want to animate them. Without animation, sprites could be simple images that are rendered with ctx. Animations are critical to a fun experience though, so it's really important that we implement it. We can implement animations by loading several images and flipping through them over time. This is called keyframe animation. In order to make it easier to edit each keyframe and load them, these images are commonly put all into one image, called a sprite map.

You may already be familiar with this technique in CSS.

Creating HTML5 Mobile Games with Phaser and PhoneGap

In fact, many times several different sprite animations are contained in a single sprite map. Here's the sprite map for our example game with a transparent background :. Like I mentioned at the beginning of this tutorial, I'm using the Hard Vacuum set of graphics. The set is a just bunch of bmp files, so I copied the individual graphics I needed and pasted them into a single sprite sheet.

You'll need a simple graphics editor to do this anything that can move pixels around should work. If you don't have one, you'll have to work with the existing formats and possibly change how the sprite animations load them. You could also find a different set or work with simple colored rectangles.

It would be difficult to manage all of these animations manually, however. This is where the second utility class comes in: sprite. This is a small file that wraps up the animation logic into a reusable type.

How to Code a Simple Game in HTML5

Let's dig into it. This is the constructor for the Sprite class. It takes quite a number of arguments, but not all of them are required. Let's go through them one by one:. The frames argument might need more explanation. The system assumes that all frames of an animation are the same size the size passed in above.

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When animating, the system simply walks through the sprite map either horizontally or vertically depending on dir by starting at pos and incrementing by the x or y value of size. You need to specify frames to tell it how to walk, though, and each number references the frame to use. So [0, 1, 2, 3, 2, 1] would animate to the end and then reverse to the beginning. Only url , pos , and size are required, since you might not need animation.

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Every Sprite object has an update method for updating the animation, and it takes the length of time since last update just like our global update. Every sprite needs to be updated each frame. Every Sprite object also has a render method for actually drawing itself. This is where most of the animation logic lives. It checks to see which frame it should render, calculates the coordinates within the sprite map, and calls ctx. We use the 3rd form of drawImage which lets us specify an offset and size for the sprite and the destination separately. Remember back in our game loop when we called update dt every frame?

We need to define that function now, which needs to handle input, update all the sprites, update the positions of entities, and handle collision. Note how we add new enemies to the scene. We add an enemy if a random value is lower then a threshold, and it's added at the right side of the game just outside the view.

It is randomly placed on the y axis by multiplying a random value by the canvas height minus the height of the enemy, so that the bottom doesn't cut any off. The value 39 is hardcoded because we know that's the height of the sprite. This code is simpler for the sake of the tutorial. The threshold increases over time with the function 1 - Math.

The game is probably way too hard but it's illustrative. To handle input, I create one more utility library: input. This is very small library that simply keeps the state of the currently pressed keys by adding keydown and keyup event handlers to the document. I don't think it's worth posting here, but please go check it out on github. The input library exports one single function, input. If the user presses the down arrow or the 's' key, we move the player up the y axis. The canvas coordinate system places 0, 0 at the top left, so moving up the y axis moves the object down the screen. We do the same for the up, left, and right keys. Notice that we defined the playerSpeed variable at the top of app. Here are the speeds we defined:. By multiplying playerSpeed by the dt parameter, we calculate the correct amount of pixels to move for that frame. If 1 second has passed since that last update which is the dt parameter , the player would move pixels.

This shows a constant rate of movement independant of framerate. The last thing we do is fire a bullet if the space button is pressed, the game isn't over, and it's been more than milliseconds since the last bullet was fired. It helps us control the rate of fire; otherwise the player could fire a bullet every frame! That's a little too easy, right? If we are firing a bullet, we add 3 bullet entities to the scene.

The bullets array keeps track of all the bullets to the scene, so it's as simple as pushing them on there. We calculate the position of the new bullets in the x and y variables. We add them at the position of the player, plus half the width and height of the player so that they shoot from the center of the ship. We add 3 bullets because they shoot out from different directions. This makes the game easier because the player can't get "trapped" horizontally when they are lots of ships. To differentiate the types of bullets, we add a dir property to the entity with a value of 'forward' , 'up' , or 'down'.

All of the entities need to be updated.